It is the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart and circulatory system (blood vessels).
The Right Atrium (RA)
The Left Atrium (LV)
The Right Ventricle (RV)
The Left Ventricle (LV)
How Does Heart work?
Cardiovascular diseases (diseases of heart and blood vessels i.e circulatory system) include Abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias, Aorta disease, Congenital heart disease, Coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), Deep vein thrombosis (blood clot formation in a vessel ) and Pulmonary embolism (it is lodging of embolus, which can be of gas, fat or blood in the vessel or in any organ), Heart attack, Heart failure, Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), Heart valve disease, Pericardial disease, Peripheral vascular disease, Rheumatic heart disease, Stroke, Vascular disease (blood vessel disease).
Angiography which is also known as arteriography is an imaging modality used to visualize the blood vessels and other organs especially inside the heart compartments.
Angioplasty is a surgical treatment that is done to widen the narrowed lumen of blood vessels or remove the obstacles which primarily block the coronary artery (vessel supplying blood to the heart). The two variants of angioplasty are - balloon angioplasty that widens the lumen with a balloon and other technique is via placing a Stent to unclog the blocked artery.
ASD (Atrial septal defect) Closure / Repair
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital cardiac abnormality, which is acquired in the foetal age. It is known as the hole in the septum of the heart muscle in layman language. The ASD closure is performed via a catheter.
Aortic valve replacement (AVR /MVR)
Aortic valve replacement (AVR) or Mitral valve replacement is a surgical procedure to replace the abnormal aortic/mitral valve. It can be done with a mechanical valve or a donor valve.
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty
Balloon aortic valvuloplasty is the treatment to widen or increase the lumen (diameter) of the heart valves when blocked. In this, a thin flexible tube attached to the balloon is inserted through the artery in the arm or the groin. Upon inflation, this inflated balloon gradually widens up the valve opening.
A Bentall procedure is a surgical procedure to cure aorta defects. Bentall procedure involves the treatment of the base of the aorta, the aortic valve, ascending aorta.
It is a surgical procedure done in children (in conditions like pulmonary atresia ( narrowing ) which causes blue baby syndrome) to temporarily increase the flow of blood from the right ventricle, through the pulmonary artery and to the lungs.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft abbreviated as CABG
The procedure is done to allow proper blood flow to the heart in cases of blocked or clogged arteries. In this procedure, a healthy vessel (artery or vein) is grafted to bypass the clogged vessel.
CABG – Redo
CABG – Redo is a tedious process when compared to the primary CABG. This procedure is recommended for older patients having more comorbid (two or more medical conditions occurring simultaneously) conditions. This procedure is also carried out on patients with non-cardiac arteries and more sclerotic(stiffness) coronary in comparison to the primary CABG.
CABG + AVR/MVR
In CABG + AVR/MVR, the defective valve of the heart (mitral valve and atrial valve) is replaced.
CABG or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft is a surgical procedure to close the ventricular septal defect i.e. VSD and Atrial septal defect i.e. ASD, with the aim to provide uninterrupted oxygen and nutrient supply to cardiac (heart) muscles.
This surgical procedure consists of replacement with a composite graft (combined by two or more arteries ) of the ascending aorta, after which a direct re-implantation of coronary arteries into an interposition graft is done.
Closed Heart Surgery
This surgery is done with the aim to treat the issues in the major blood vessels like pulmonary arteries or aorta. It includes Pulmonary artery repair, vascular ring division, and shunt surgery.
It is a surgical procedure to treat narrowed aorta, with self-expandable stent implantation. In most of the cases, dilatation is first carried out with ballon coarctoplasty.
Complex CABG - Pump On/Off
It is a process similar to conventional coronary artery bypass graft with the advantage of a bloodless field is maintained with the help of an on/off the pump.
Double valve replacement
Carried out under general anesthesia, this process is indicated in patients suffering from the acquired disease of the heart valve or congenital valve defect. In this process, both heart valves, mitral as well as aortic valve are replaced hence the name double valve replacement.
This procedure involves introducing electrodes into the heart to monitor the abnormalities in the heart rhythm and conduction.
RFA (Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation)
Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation or RFA is done to deliver radiofrequency to treat heart rhythm problems.
It is a procedure done in children with single ventricles. In this procedure, venous blood from Inferior Vena Cava and Superior Vena Cava is diverted to the pulmonary arteries.
Heart port surgery
It is a minimally invasive surgical approach .it is done by making small incisions in comparison to the open heart surgical approach. In this approach, a slit is made on the right side of the chest for access to the cardiac tissues.
Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, valve repair and replacement, Off-pump coronary artery bypass and Lead placement are the examples of the heart port surgery.
ICD Combo Device (Only Surgery)
In this procedure, an implant is planted in the chest or abdomen area to detect tachycardia, fibrillation and also to monitor the heart rhythms. This implant is known as ICD Combo Device.
Mini Sternotomy + RT Carotid Endarterectomy
A mini Sternotomy is an approach for minimally invasive surgery. The procedure involves making an incision which is smaller as compared to standard sternotomy (where a cut in the skin over your breastbone (sternum). Then a cut is made through sternum)
Along with that, this procedure is better as it causes less trauma to the chest wall tissues. The surgeons perform carotid endarterectomy through Mini Sternotomy which is a process for reducing the risk of stroke by narrowing of the carotid artery or correcting stenosis.
This procedure is done to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome via establishing a functional systematic circuit in patients to treat. The procedure consists of three stages; the first stage right ventricle is converted into the main ventricle pumping blood to the lungs and rest of the body. A shunt has placed the aorta and the main pulmonary artery between them to supply blood.
In the second stage, the shunt is disconnected to connect the pulmonary artery to the superior vena cava. It is a vein that carries deoxygenated blood which will now send half of the blood to the lungs without entering the ventricle. The third stage which is the last stage is Fontan operation as described above
Pacemaker Implant Double Chamber
A pacemaker is a small device that is placed in the abdomen or chest to help control arrhythmia (abnormalities in the heart rhythms). Pacemaker implant with the double chamber has two leads, one of which goes into the right atrium and the other one goes into the right bottom chamber called a ventricle.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) device closure
PDA device closure is a surgical technique in which a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel to the heart after which the closure device is threaded and is placed through the catheter into the Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). After the successful placing of the device, the catheter is removed.
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery –
ASD/AV/VSD Repair: Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Atrioventricular (AV) Canal Defect, Ventricular Septal Defect are all defects in the cardiac tissues. These are repaired by the closure of the holes in the septa (atrial or ventricular) with the use of a patch and regeneration of the common atrioventricular valve.
Mitral valve Repair: This surgical procedure is done in patients with mitral regurgitation. Here, the tissue is removed or reshaped and then tears or holes in the valve are patched. Or in cases where flaps are fused, in these cases, the flaps are separated.
Pediatric Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF): This rare condition is caused by a combination of four defects namely pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy (hypertrophy is an increase in size ) The cardiologist repair TOF to improve the flow of blood to the lungs. Here, either the pulmonary blood vessels are widened or pulmonary valves are replaced.
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery - Conduit Repair / ASO/AV Canal
It is a procedure in which stents are placed and Conduits are done (conduits are the procedure done to treat the symptoms caused by blood flow obstruction) especially in children. This procedure is done to treat congenital heart diseases.
Atrial switch operation is a surgical procedure to adjust the arteries at their exact place procedure.
AV Canal is a procedure in which one or patches are used for the closure of the hole to treat the Atrioventricular canal defect.
A condition in which the pulmonary veins drain the blood into the right atrium instead of the left atrium is referred to as TAPVC. It is an open-heart surgery to reconnect the pulmonary veins to the left atrium.