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All About Hysterectomy Surgery in India


  1. What is Hysterectomy?

Hysterectomy is a surgical process that involves the removal of a woman’s uterus. It may also involve the removal of other organs such as ovaries, cervix and fallopian tubes along with others. It is a complex procedure that is performed only by an expert gynecologist. 



                                                                        A quick glimpse at Female Reproductive System

  1. What are the types of Hysterectomy?

           There are following types of Hysterectomy:- 

           In case of uterine or cervical cancer, all the Hysterectomies mentioned above may involve the removal of lymph nodes.



  1. When is a person required to undergo the surgical process of Hysterectomy? 
    • One of the most common reasons to opt for Hysterectomy is Uterine fibroids.
    • Endometrial cancer involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes, can be cured using Hysterectomy.
    • Endometriosis is a disorder that involves the abnormal formation of a tissue that forms the lining of the uterus. This tissue grows outside the uterus and causes complications. The conditions of Endometriosis can also be treated by hysterectomy. 
    • Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of the female reproductive organs, also requires hysterectomy to be performed. 



  1. What are the options available for Hysterectomy surgery?
    • Open surgery-In this process; the doctor makes a long incision from the pubic bone to above the navel region. This incision is long enough for the surgeon to fit their hand insides, along with the instruments, and operate on the target organ.
    • Minimally invasive Robot-assisted surgery- In this surgical process, 4 to 5 small incisions of  7mm in length are made instead of a long cut. The surgical system comprises a 3D HD vision that enables the surgeon to have a magnified view inside the body of the patient. Furthermore, it consists of small devices that bend and rotate to assists the surgeon while operating. They provide an improved vision, accuracy, and control. 


  1. Types of Hysterectomy surgeries? 
    • Total hysterectomy- This process, also known as simple hysterectomy. In this process the surgeon removes the cervix and uterus.
    • Radical hysterectomy- This process involves the removal of the uterus, cervix, the uppermost region of the vagina along with the neighbouring ligaments that provide support to the uterus. Often, the lymph nodes in the pelvis region are eliminated during the staging operation. 
    • Retroperitoneal lymph nodes dissection- It is a surgical process that involves abdominal lymph nodes.
    • Omentectomy- It is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a thin fold of abdominal tissue called omentum. The function of this tissue is to enclose the abdominal organs like stomach, large intestine etc. 
    • Excision of ovarian cyst- It is a surgical process that involves the removal of the cyst, i.e. an abnormal growth that is filled with a semisolid constituent that often leads to pain. 
    • Minimally invasive robot surgery can be used in the removal of fallopian tube and ovary. 


  1. What are the advantages of minimally invasive surgery ? 
    • The traditional procedure of making long incision involved making a cut of about 7mm in length right above the navel. Whereas in a minimally invasive method, it only makes about 4-5 small cuts. 
    • This way, the blood loss is reduced significantly as compared to open surgery. Hence, also reducing the need for blood transfusion.
    • As the intensity of incisions is reduced considerably, the need for painkillers is reduced. 
    • Often, the patient is allowed to intake oral feeds on the same day of surgery. This is not possible in the case of long incision surgery.
    • The time of stay in the hospital is reduced significantly. Usually, the patients are discharged within a day.
    • Patients who opt for this surgery can return to a normal lifestyle quicker. They can easily join work after a proper rest of about two weeks. 
    • Long incision surgery also invites several kinds of complications for patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. These complications get avoided.

          Scarring depends on the type of surgery that a patient opts for. 


  1. Will Hysterectomy lead to scarring? 
    • Open Surgery a traditional method of surgery. It is done in the region of the lower abdomen, and it leaves a scar. This is because it involves making a long incision near the navel region to remove the uterus. 
    • Whereas, the process of Minimally invasive robot surgery involves making small cuts in the vagina or belly with special surgical instruments. This process usually leaves no noticeable scars.


  1. What are some of the side effects of Hysterectomy? 
    • Surgical wound infections can also develop in some cases if hygiene is not taken care of during and post-surgery. 
    • Even though excessive bleeding is seen in rare cases, but can occur. 
    • Loss of ovarian function can be a side effect of Hysterectomy. 
    • Urinary tract infection can develop in some patients if proper hygiene is not maintained. 
    • Anaesthetics may also lead to some complications. 
    • Pain during sexual intercourse is observed in many patients post-surgery. 
    • The occurrence of vaginal bleeding is also a common sight seen in patients post-surgery.


  1. What are the precautions to be taken post-Hysterectomy? 
    • It is advised to take proper sleep and rest to make sure that the body makes quick recoveries. 
    • Never ignore the directions given by the doctor and follow them sincerely.
    • The patient is required to continue with all the exercises that their doctor demonstrated them. This will help the body heal and recover faster. 
    • Any kind of aggressive workout such as lifting heavy weights should be avoided at all cost. 
    • The doctor must be consulted if the patient is required to use tampons. 
    • Sexual intercourse should be avoided for at least six weeks.